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Schalk-Hihi C , Markham GD
The conformations of a substrate and a product bound to the active site of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase
Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 23;38(8) :2542-2550
PMID: ISI:000078971300035   
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S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is the most widely used alkyl group donor in biological systems. The formation of AdoMet from ATP and L-methionine is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (AdoMet synthetase). Elucidation of the conformations of enzyme-bound substrates, product, and inhibitors is important for the understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme and the design of new inhibitors. To obtain structural data for enzyme-bound substrates and product, we have used two-dimensional transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy to determine the conformation of enzyme- bound AdoMet and 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMPPNP). AMPPNP, an analogue of ATP, is resistant to the ATP hydrolysis activity of AdoMet synthetase because of the presence of a nonhydrolyzable NH-link between the beta- and gamma-phosphates but is a substrate for AdoMet formation during which tripolyphosphate is produced. AdoMet and AMPPNP both bind in an anti conformation about the glycosidic bond. The ribose rings are in C-3'-exo and C-4'-exo conformations in AdoMet and AMPPNP, respectively. The differences in ribose ring conformations presumably reflect the different steric requirements of the C5' substituents in AMPPNP and AdoMet. The NMR-determined conformations of AdoMet and AMPPNP were docked into the E. coli AdoMet synthetase active site taken from the enzyme.ADP.P-i crystal structure. Since there are no nonexchangeable protons either in the carboxy-terminal end of the methionine segment of AdoMet or in the tripolyphosphate segment of AMPPNP, these portions of the molecules were modeled into the enzyme active site. The interactions of AdoMet and AMPPNP with the enzyme predict the location of the methionine binding site and suggest how the positive charge formed on the sulfur during AdoMet synthesis is stabilized.
Times Cited: 5 English Article 173FW BIOCHEMISTRY-USA