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Matin TA , Goldberg M
Surgical staging of lung cancer
Oncology-New York. 1999 May;13(5) :679-685
PMID: ISI:000166434600020   
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The staging of lung cancer defines the extent of disease. Accurate staging is important to define operability, select treatment regimens, and predict survival, Nonsurgical and surgical techniques are used to stage patients, The most important nonsurgical techniques used currently are the chest x-ray and completed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest and upper abdomen. In the future, positron emission tomography (PET) may become the single most important nonsurgical investigation, Surgical staging involves histologic assessment of the primary tumor and potential sites of metastases. At present, the standard for surgical staging is cervical mediastinotomy. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures used to stage patients with lung cancer are scalene lymph none biopsy, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, anterior mediastinoscopy, and video-assisted thoracoscopy. The different surgical staging options and their indications will be discussed in depth.
Times Cited: 1 English Article 392WB ONCOLOGY-NY