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Chen J , Contreras R , Wang R , Fernandez S , Shoshani L , Russo I , Cereijido M , Russo J
Sodium/potasium ATPase (Na+, K+-ATPase) and ouabain/related cardiac glycosides: a new paradigm for development of anti- breast cancer drugs?
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2005 Dec;eFIRST date :2
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Prolonged exposure to 17beta-estradiol (E2) is a key etiological factor for human breast cancer. The biological effects and carcinogenic effects of E2 are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta. Anti-estrogens, e.g. tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors have been used to treat ER-positive breast cancer. While anti-estrogen therapy is initially successful, a major problem is that most tumors develop resistance and the disease ultimately progresses, pointing to the need of developing alternative drugs targeting to other critical targets in breast cancer cells. We have identified that Na+, K+-ATPase, a plasma membrane ion pump, has unique/valuable properties that could be used as a potentially important target for breast cancer treatment: (a) it is a key player of cell adhesion and is involved in cancer progression; (b) it serves as a versatile signal transducer and is a target for a number of hormones including estrogens and (d) its aberrant expression and act ivity are implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. There are several lines of evidence indicating that ouabain and related digitalis (the potent inhibitors of Na+, K+-ATPase) possess potent anti-breast cancer activity. While it is not clear how the suggested anti-cancer activity of these drugs work, several observations point to ouabain and digitalis as being potential ER antagonists. We critically reviewed many lines of evidence and postulated a novel concept that Na+, K+-ATPase in combination with ERs could be important targets of anti-breast cancer drugs. Modulators, e.g. ouabain and related digitalis could be useful to develop valuable anti-breast cancer drugs as both Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors and ER antagonists.