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Fujio Y , Guo K , Mano T , Mitsuuchi Y , Testa JR , Walsh K
Cell cycle withdrawal promotes myogenic induction of Akt, a positive modulator of myocyte survival
Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1999 Jul;19(7) :5073-5082
PMID: ISI:000080952300054   
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During myogenesis, proliferating myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle, acquire an apoptosis-resistant phenotype, and differentiate into myotubes. Previous studies indicate that myogenic induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 results in an inhibition of apoptotic cell death in addition to its role as a negative cell cycle regulator. Here we demonstrate that the protein encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is induced in C2C12 cells during myogenic differentiation with a corresponding increase in kinase activity. In differentiating cultures, expression of dominant-negative forms of Akt increase the frequency of cell death whereas expression of wild-type Akt protects against death, indicating that Akt is a positive modulator of myocyte survival. Antisense oligonucleotides against p21 block cell cycle withdrawal, inhibit Akt induction, and enhance cell death in differentiating myocyte cultures. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of wild-type or constitutively active Akt constructs confer partial resistance to cell death under conditions where cell cycle exit is blocked by the antisense oligonucleotides. Collectively, these data indicate that cell cycle withdrawal facilitates the induction of Akt during myogenesis, promoting myocyte survival.
Times Cited: 40 English Article 207TR MOL CELL BIOL