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Katz RA , Greger JG , Skalka AM
Effects of cell cycle status on early events in retroviral replication
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 1;94(5) :880-889
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The study of retroviruses over the last century has revealed a wide variety of disease-producing mechanisms, as well as apparently harmless interactions with animal hosts. Despite their potential pathogenic properties, the intrinsic features of retroviruses have been harnessed to create gene transfer vectors that maybe useful for the treatment of disease. Retroviruses, as all viruses, have evolved to infect specific cells within the host, and such specificities are relevant to both pathogenesis and retrovirus-based vector design. The majority of cells of an animal host are not progressing rapidly through the cell cycle, and such a cellular environment appears to be suboptimal for replication of all retroviruses. Retrovirus-based vectors can therefore be restricted in many important target cells, such as post-mitotic differentiated cells or stem cells that may divide only infrequently. Despite intense interest, our understanding of how cell cycle status influences retroviral infection is still quite limited. In this review, we focus on the importance of the cell cycle as it relates to the early steps in retroviral replication. Retroviruses have been categorized based on their abilities to complete these early steps in non-cycling cells. However,all retroviruses are subject to a variety of cell cycle restrictions. Here, we discuss such restrictions, and how they may block retroviral replication, be tolerated, or overcome. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
English Article