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Tapiero H , Townsend DM , Tew KD
Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Nov;57(9) :386-398
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Abstract
Copper is a trace element, important for the function of many cellular enzymes. Copper ions can adopt distinct redox states oxidized Cu(II) or reduced (I), allowing the metal to play a pivotal role in cell physiology as a catalytic cofactor in the redox chemistry of enzymes, mitochondrial respiration, iron absorption, free radical scavenging and elastin cross-linking. If present in excess, free copper ions can cause damage to cellular components and a delicate balance between the uptake and efflux of copper ions determines the amount of cellular copper. In biological systems, copper homeostasis has been characterized at the molecular level. It is coordinated by several proteins such as glutathione, metallothionein, Cu-transporting P-type ATPases, Menkes and Wilson proteins and by cytoplasmic transport proteins called copper chaperones to ensure that it is delivered to specific subcellular compartments and thereby to copper-requiring proteins. (C) 2003 Published by Editions s! cientitiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.
Notes
English Review Life Sciences (LS) Tapiero, H; Univ Paris, Fac Pharm, CNRS UMR 8612, 5 Rue Jean Baptiste Clement, F-94200 Chatenay Malabry, France. 0753-3322