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Kuban D , Pollack A , Huang E , Levy L , Dong L , Starkschall G , Rosen I
Hazards of dose escalation in prostate cancer radiotherapy
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 2003 Dec;57(5) :1260-1268
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Purpose: To assess the benefit of escalating the dose in definitive prostate cancer radiotherapy vs. the associated risk of complications. Methods and Materials: Between 1987 and 1999,1087 patients with clinical Stage T1b-T3 adenocarcinoma of the prostate were definitively irradiated without hormonal therapy and had a pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score recorded. The median follow-up was 65 months. Doses ranged from 64 to 78 Gy, with the treatment techniques corresponding to the year of therapy and the prescribed dose. A total of 301 patients were treated on a randomized protocol to either 70 or 78 Gy. Also, 163 patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal therapy and had dose-volume histograms available for review. Results: Tumor stage, grade, pretreatment PSA level, and radiation dose were all independent predictors of PSA disease-free survival (PSA-DFS) in multivariate analysis. The hazard rate for biochemical failure peaked at 1.5-3 years after radiotherapy. Although a statistically significant dose effect on PSA-DFS was found in the pretreatment PSA levels of those with both less than or equal to 10 ng/mL and > 10 ng/mL, in those with a pretreatment PSA less than or equal to 10 ng/mL, the improvement in outcome was only seen going from a dose level of 64-66 Gy to 68-70 Gy with a 5-year PSA-DFS rate of 66% vs. 81% (p < 0.0001). This was also confirmed by the data from the randomized patients who showed no difference in outcome whether treated to 70 Gy or 78 Gy. In patients with a pretreatment PSA level > 10 ng/mL, a statistically significant improvement was found in disease-free outcome among the 64-66-Gy, 68-70-Gy, and 78-Gy levels. PSA-DFS was approximately 50% better at each high! er dose level at 5 and 8 years after treatment. The dose had a statistically significant impact in both intermediate- and high-risk groups. Rectal morbidity was both dose and volume related. Although at 5 years after therapy, the Grade 2-3 rectal complication rate was twice as high for patients treated to 78. Gy than to 70 Gy, 26% vs. 12%, this risk could be markedly diminished by adhering to dose-volume constraints. Conclusion: In intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients, although it appears that radiation-dose escalation may improve PSA-DF outcome, the price paid in treatment morbidity can be high without adequate attention to dose-volume constraints of normal tissue. Care must be taken to consider not only the hazard of tumor recurrence but also that of complications. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc.
English Article Kuban, D; Univ Texas, MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Radiat Oncol, Box 97,1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 USA. Research Addresses: Univ Texas, MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Radiat Oncol, Houston, TX 77030 USA. Univ Texas, MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Biomath, Houston, TX 77030 USA. Univ Texas, MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Radiat Phys, Houston, TX 77030 USA. *Fox* *Chase* Canc Ctr, Dept Radiat Oncol, Philadelphia, PA 19111 USA. Cited References: DALE E, 1999, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V43, P385 HANKS GE, 2002, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V54, P427 HUANG EH, 2002, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V54, P1314 HURWITZ MD, 2002, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V53, P1106 JACKSON A, 2001, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V49, P685 KUBAN DA, 1987, UROLOGY, V30, P420 KUBAN DA, 1998, SEMIN RADIAT ONCOL, V8, P72 KUBAN D, IN PRESS INT J RAD O KUBAN DA, 1995, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V32, P307 LEE WR, 1996, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V35, P251 LYONS JA, 2000, UROLOGY, V55, P85 POLLACK A, 2002, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V53, P1097 SKWARCHUK MW, 2000, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V47, P103 STOREY MR, 2000, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V48, P635 THAMES H, IN PRESS INT J RAD O VICINI FA, 1998, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V40, P1101 WACHTER S, 2001, RADIOTHER ONCOL, V59, P65 ZELEFSKY MJ, 2002, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V53, P1111 ZELEFSKY MJ, 2001, J UROLOGY, V166, P876 ZELEFSKY MJ, 1998, INT J RADIAT ONCOL, V41, P491 Number of cited references: 20 Number of times cited: 0 Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; 360 PARK AVE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USA. 0360-3016