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von Mehren M , Arlen P , Gulley J , Rogatko A , Cooper HS , Meropol NJ , Alpaugh RK , Davey M , McLaughlin S , Beard MT , Tsang KY , Schlom J , Weiner LM
The influence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and prior chemotherapy on the immunological response to a vaccine (ALVAC-CEA B7.1) in patients with metastatic carcinoma
Clin Cancer Res. 2001 May;7(5) :1181-91
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Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to be an effective vaccine adjuvant because it enhances antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells. ALVAC-CEA B7.1 is a canarypox virus encoding the gene for the tumor-associated antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and for a T-cell costimulatory molecule, B7.1. After an initial dose escalation phase, this study evaluated vaccination with 4.5 x 10(8) plaque-forming units ALVAC-CEA B7.1 alone (n = 30) or with GM-CSF (n = 30) in patients with advanced CEA-expressing tumors to determine whether the addition of the adjuvant GM-CSF enhances induction of CEA-specific T-cells. Patients were vaccinated with vaccine intradermally every other week for 8 weeks. GM-CSF was given s.c. for 5 days beginning 2 days before vaccination. Patients with stable or responding disease after four immunizations received monthly boost injections alone or with GM-CSF. Biopsies of vaccine sites were obtained 48 h after vaccination to evaluate leukocytic infiltration and CEA expression. Induction of peripheral blood CEA-specific T-cell precursors was assessed in HLA-A2 positive patients by an ELISPOT assay looking for the production of IFN-gamma. Therapy was well tolerated. All of the patients had evidence of leukocytic infiltration and CEA expression in vaccine biopsy sites. In the patients receiving GM-CSF, leukocytic infiltrates were greater in cell number but were less likely to have a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate compared with patients receiving vaccine in the absence of the cytokine adjuvant. After four vaccinations, CEA-specific T-cell precursors were statistically increased in HLA-A2 positive patients who received vaccine alone. However, the GM-CSF plus vaccine cohort of HLA-A2 positive did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in their CEA-specific T-cell precursor frequencies compared with baseline results. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens was negatively correlated with the generation of a T-cell response, whereas there was a positive correlation between the number of months from the last chemotherapy regimen and the T-cell response. ALVAC-CEA B7.1 is safe in patients with advanced, recurrent adenocarcinomas that express CEA, is associated with the induction of a CEA-specific T-cell response in patients treated with vaccine alone but not with vaccine and GM-CSF, and can lead to disease stabilization for up to 13 months.
1078-0432 Clinical Trial Journal Article