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Kappes DJ , Lawrence DM , Vaughn MM , Dave VP , Belman AR , Rall GF
Protection of CD3 delta knockout mice from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunopathology: implications for viral neuroinvasion
Virology. 2000 Apr 10;269(2) :248-56
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For a virus to establish a neuronal infection, it must spread from its primary site of infection to the central nervous system (CNS) before immune-mediated clearance occurs. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a murine pathogen that can result in persistent neuronal infection in newborn mice and in adults that lack CD8(+) T cells. To determine the neuroinvasive capacity of LCMV in the presence of an existent, but compromised, cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, the course of LCMV infection was examined in mice that possess 10% of the normal complement of T lymphocytes, due to the lack of the CD3 delta (delta) subunit of the T cell receptor complex (CD3 delta KO mice). Unlike immunocompetent mice that produced a massive immune response that caused death by 6-7 days postinfection, CD3 delta KO mice mounted a weak response and survived. The presence of viral antigen gradually shifted from the class I MHC-positive meninges and ependyma to class I MHC-deficient CNS neurons 10-30 days postinoculation. The infected CD3 delta KO mice developed a delayed T cell response that suppressed virus replication in peripheral tissues but not in the CNS; subsequent adoptive transfer experiments supported the hypothesis that the lack of clearance from neurons was due to sequestration of LCMV in an immune-privileged cell type. Based on these results, we propose that a critical parameter in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses is the rate of immune activation; individuals with impaired T cell responses may be more vulnerable to persisting CNS infections.
20219617 0042-6822 Journal Article