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Yamada KM , Pankov R , Cukierman E
Dimensions and dynamics in integrin function
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2003 Aug;36(8) :959-966
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Integrins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signaling by providing transmembrane links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Integrins cluster in macromolecular complexes to generate cell-matrix adhesions such as focal adhesions. In this mini-review, we compare certain integrin-based biological responses and signaling during cell interactions with standard 2D cell culture versus 3D matrices. Besides responding to the composition of the matrix, cells sense and react to physical properties that include three-dimensionality and rigidity. In routine cell culture, fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells appear to use focal adhesions as anchors. They then use intracellular actomyosin contractility and dynamic, directional integrin movements to stretch cell-surface fibronectin and to generate characteristic long fibrils of fibronectin in "fibrillar adhesions". Some cells in culture proceed to produce dense, three-dimensional matrices similar to in vivo matrix, as opposed to the flat, rigid, two-dimensional surfaces habitually used for cell culture. Cells within such more natural 3D matrices form a distinctive class of adhesion termed "3D-matrix adhesions". These 3D adhesions show distinctive morphology and molecular composition. Their formation is heavily dependent on interactions between integrin alpha(5)beta(1), and fibronectin. Cells adhere much more rapidly to 3D matrices. They also show more rapid morphological changes, migration, and proliferation compared to most 2D matrices or 3D collagen gels. Particularly notable are low levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and moderate increases in activated mitogen- activated protein kinase. These findings underscore the importance of the dimensionality and dynamics of matrix substrates in cellular responses to the extracellular matrix.
Yamada, KM,NIDCR, CDBRB, NIH, Bldg 30,Rm 421,30 Convent Dr MSC 4370, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA Article English