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Mitsunaga S , Clapper M , Litwin S , Watts P , Bauer B , Klein-Szanto AJ
Chemopreventive effect of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on mouse skin squamous cell carcinomas induced by benzo(a)pyrene
J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1997 ;28-29 :81-9
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Abstract
The effect of the chemopreventive agent D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on the incidence of skin squamous cell carcinoma was studied in SENCAR mice treated weekly with topical applications of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) (0.15 mmol, 2 x /week) on the dorsal skin. Animals were randomized to receive either chow or chow supplemented with DFMO (1 g/1 kg) and studied at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 weeks of B(a)P treatment. Morphometric analyses at each timepoint evaluated the epidermal thickness (ET) and the number of epidermal nucleated layers (NL). The ET increased from 12-17 microns as early as 10 weeks after B(a)P treatment, reaching 22 microns at 20 weeks, and 27 microns at 25 weeks (130% increase). The NL also increased markedly. A relatively modest increase in ET was observed in animals treated with B(a)P and DFMO (16% at 15 weeks, 53% at 20 weeks, and 85% at 25 weeks) as compared to controls. The relative increase in NL showed a similar pattern. Although extensive epidermal hyperplasia was seen early, clear-cut focal premalignant lesions were not identifiable before week 20 of B(a)P treatment. At 20 weeks, the most frequently noted focal premalignant lesions in carcinogen-treated animals (without DFMO) were moderate dysplasias. At 25 and 30 weeks, a large increase was seen in the incidence of more advanced dysplastic lesions and invasive carcinomas. In the group treated with B(a)P and DFMO, a marked reduction in the number of carcinomas was observed at 25 and 30 weeks. At 25 weeks, DFMO reduced tumor yield from 5.8 to 3.2 carcinomas per mouse. At 30 weeks, the reduction was from 13.1 to 5.7 carcinomas per mouse (57% reduction). Collectively, these data emphasize the strong chemopreventive effect of DFMO against tumors in the mouse skin complete carcinogenesis model, as indicated by the reduction of overall skin tumor incidence and the decreased epidermal hyperplasia in DFMO-treated animals. Morphometrically defined increases in ET and NL can be used as early biomarkers of DFMO chemoprevention in mouse skin tumorigenesis.
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98251257 0733-1959 Journal Article