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Shastry MC , Luck SD , Roder H
A continuous-flow capillary mixing method to monitor reactions on the microsecond time scale
Biophys J. 1998 May;74(5) :2714-21
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A continuous-flow capillary mixing apparatus, based on the original design of Regenfuss et al. (Regenfuss, P., R. M. Clegg, M. J. Fulwyler, F. J. Barrantes, and T. M. Jovin. 1985. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56:283-290), has been developed with significant advances in mixer design, detection method and data analysis. To overcome the problems associated with the free-flowing jet used for observation in the original design (instability, optical artifacts due to scattering, poor definition of the geometry), the solution emerging from the capillary is injected directly into a flow-cell joined to the tip of the outer capillary via a ground-glass joint. The reaction kinetics are followed by measuring fluorescence versus distance downstream from the mixer, using an Hg(Xe) arc lamp for excitation and a digital camera with a UV-sensitized CCD detector for detection. Test reactions involving fluorescent dyes indicate that mixing is completed within 15 micros of its initiation and that the dead time of the measurement is 45 +/- 5 micros, which represents a >30-fold improvement in time resolution over conventional stopped-flow instruments. The high sensitivity and linearity of the CCD camera have been instrumental in obtaining artifact-free kinetic data over the time window from approximately 45 micros to a few milliseconds with signal-to-noise levels comparable to those of conventional methods. The scope of the method is discussed and illustrated with an example of a protein folding reaction.
98252369 0006-3495 Journal Article