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Gately DP , Hittle JC , Chan GK , Yen TJ
Characterization of ATM expression, localization, and associated DNA-dependent protein kinase activity
Mol Biol Cell. 1998 Sep;9(9) :2361-74
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Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) is a 350-kDa protein whose function is defective in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies were used to characterize ATM. Steady-state levels of ATM protein varied from undetectable in most AT cell lines to highly expressed in HeLa, U2OS, and normal human fibroblasts. Subcellular fractionation showed that ATM is predominantly a nuclear protein associated with the chromatin and nuclear matrix. ATM protein levels remained constant throughout the cell cycle and did not change in response to serum stimulation. Ionizing radiation had no significant effect on either the expression or distribution of ATM. ATM immunoprecipitates from HeLa cells and the human DNA-dependent protein kinase null cell line MO59J, but not from AT cells, phosphorylated the 34-kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) complex in a single-stranded and linear double-stranded DNA-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of p34 RPA occurred on threonine and serine residues. Phosphopeptide analysis demonstrates that the ATM-associated protein kinase phosphorylates p34 RPA on similar residues observed in vivo. The DNA-dependent protein kinase activity observed for ATM immunocomplexes, along with the association of ATM with chromatin, suggests that DNA damage can induce ATM or a stably associated protein kinase to phosphorylate proteins in the DNA damage response pathway.
98395041 1059-1524 Journal Article