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O'Brien ML , Vulevic B , Freer S , Boyd J , Shen H , Tew KD
Glutathione peptidomimetic drug modulator of multidrug resistance-associated protein
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Dec;291(3) :1348-55
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The peptidomimetic drug gamma-glutamyl-S-(benzyl)cysteinyl-R-(-)-phenyl glycine diethyl ester (TER199) is an analog of glutathione designed to be an isozyme-specific inhibitor of GSTP1-1 protein1-1. This compound (and the de-esterified moiety) is shown to be an effective inhibitor of multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1)-mediated drug resistance. Kinetic analyses revealed that gamma-glutamyl-S-(benzyl)cysteinyl-R-(-)-phenyl glycine reversibly inhibits the transport of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione with a K(i) of 752 microM. TER199 reversed the accumulation deficit of daunorubicin in MRP1-transfected NIH3T3 fibroblasts and maintained intracellular levels for >2 h after daunorubicin removal. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that TER199 significantly reversed the resistance of MRP1-transfected NIH3T3 cells for vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, and mitoxantrone. HL-60 cells made resistant to TER199 by chronic, long-term selection had increased mRNA and protein levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein, MRP1, and gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase heavy and light subunits (the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis). In spite of increased gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, their glutathione content was reduced approximately 35% from that of parental HL-60 cells. These cells also exhibited a drug resistance profile commensurate with the previously described MRP1 overexpressing phenotype, with resistance to Vinca alkaloids, epipodophyllotoxins, and anthracyclines; additional cross-resistance to paclitaxel (Taxol), mitoxantrone, and 5-fluorouracil was observed.
0022-3565 Journal Article