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Coia LR , Engstrom PF , Paul AR , Stafford PM , Hanks GE
Long-Term Results of Infusional 5-Fu, Mitomycin-C, and Radiation as Primary Management of Esophageal-Carcinoma
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1991 Jan;20(1) :29-36
PMID: ISI:A1991EV61800006   
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An analysis of the results of 90 patients with esophageal cancer treated prospectively with combined chemotherapy and radiation without surgery and with a median follow-up of 45 months is presented. Fifty-seven patients with Stage I or II disease received definitive treatment consisting of 6,000 cGy in 6 to 7 weeks and 5-FU (1,000 mg/m2/24 hr) as a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion for 96 hours, starting on days 2 and 29. Mitomycin C (10 mg/m2) was administered as a bolus injection on day 2. Thirty-three patients received palliative treatment (5,000 cGy plus above chemotherapy) for Stage III, IV, or otherwise advanced disease (extraesophageal spread, distant metastases, multiple primary tumors). Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 96 months. Overall median survival of Stage I and II patients was 18 months with 3- and 5-year actuarial survival of 29% and 18%, respectively, while the median disease specific survival was 20 months with an actuarial disease specific survival of 41% and 30% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. A multivariate analysis of sex, histology, tumor location, and tumor size on survival revealed that the effect of stage was highly significant (Stage I versus II, 73% versus 33% at 3 years, p = .01), whereas the effect of sex approached significance (females versus males, 57% versus 34% at 3 years, p = < .1). The actuarially determined local relapse-free rate for Stage I and II patients at both 3 and 5 years was 70%. Multivariate analysis again indicated stage to be highly significant (Stage I versus II, 100% versus 60% at 3 years, p = < .01), whereas sex approached significance (female versus male, 75% versus 66% at 3 years, p = .07). The pattern of failure may be altered with this treatment regimen from local failure to one dominated by distant metastases. Of 29 patients who have failed, 14 (48%) had any component of local failure, whereas 21 (72%) had a distant failure as a component of failure. The median survival of patients with Stage III or IV disease was 9 months and 7 months, respectively. Palliation in this group of patients with advanced disease was good as 77% were rendered free of dysphagia post-treatment, and 60% were without dysphagia until death with a median dysphagia-free duration of 5 months. Severe toxicities were uncommon and nearly all were transient. Eleven of 90 patients (12.2%) had severe acute toxicities, whereas only 3 patients (3.3%) developed significant late treatment-related complications requiring hospitalization for management.