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Punzi JS , Duax WL , Strong P , Griffin JF , Flocco MM , Zacharias DE , Carrell HL , Tew KD , Glusker JP
Molecular-Conformation of Estramustine and 2 Analogs
Molecular Pharmacology. 1992 Mar;41(3) :569-576
PMID: ISI:A1992HL47300018   
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The crystal and molecular structures of estramustine and two of its analogues have been determined by X-ray crystallographic techniques (a total of three different compounds). The compounds studied are estramustine [1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17- beta-diol-3-N,N-bis(2'-chloroethyl)carbamate] and its monohydrate, estromustine [17-oxo-1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3-yl- N,N-bis(2'-chloroethyl)carbamate], and 17-oxo-5-androsten-3- beta-yl-N,N-bis(2'-chloroethyl)carbamate. Three views of estramustine were obtained from the study of its two crystal forms. The main structural features found are as follows: (a) the geometries of the steroid moieties are closely similar to those of the parent steroids, (b) the bonds around the nitrogen atom of the nitrogen mustard grouping lie approximately in a plane in each structure, (c) the plane through the carbon atoms of the steroid A-ring lies approximately perpendicular to the plane through the carbamate atoms in each structure, (d) the carbonyl C-O of the carbamate points to the alpha side of the steroid moiety in each structure, and (e) one chlorine atom of the nitrogen mustard grouping makes a close contact [3.13 angstrom], in each structure, to the nitrogen atom. Hydrogen bonding to the carbamate appears to occur from the alpha side of the steroid; there is no hydrogen bonding to the nitrogen atom of the carbamate group. These structural data provide some steric explanations for the resistance of the carbamate to enzymatic hydrolysis. The long in vivo half-life of the intact estramustine molecule is a result of this stability. This is responsible for the absence of alkylating ability and the propensity of the drug to bind microtubule-associated proteins and express an antimitotic mechanism of action.
English Article HL473 MOL PHARMACOL