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Ozols RF
Role of Chemotherapy in the Future Treatment of Ovarian-Cancer
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1992 ;71 :55-60
PMID: ISI:A1992JM97500007   
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Platinum-based chemotherapy has led to an improvement in complete response rates and duration of median remission, but has only given a modest improvement in overall survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy will in the future focus upon: (1) improving the complete remission rate with new induction regimens; (2) identifying strategies capable of converting partial remission into complete remission; (3) preventing or delaying recurrences in patients who do achieve a complete remission; (4) identifying mechanisms of antineoplastic drug resistance and pharmacologic techniques capable of reversing drug resistance. Among the treatment approaches being utilized are high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, development of new chemotherapeutic regimens which include Taxol and hexamethylmelamine, and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In addition, our understanding of the mechanisms of antineoplastic drug resistance has led to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. It has been demonstrated that resistance to platinum and alkylating agents is associated with both increased concentrations of cellular glutathione (GSH) as well as an increased capacity of tumor cells to repair damage to DNA. Inhibition of GSH biosynthesis with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a synthetic inhibitor of the enzyme gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, has led to the potentiation of alkylating agent activity in vitro and in vivo. A phase I trial of BSO plus melphalan is currently in progress and a trial of BSO plus carboplatin is planned. Inhibition of the DNA repair process with aphidicolin potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in drug-resistant tumor cells. Clinical trials of aphidicolin plus cisplatin await the completion of ongoing phase I trials of aphidicolin.