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Odwyer PJ , Lacreta FP , Walczak J , Cox T , Litwin S , Hoffman JP , Zimny M , Comis RL
Phase-I Pharmacokinetic Biochemical-Study of the Nitroimadazole Hypoxic Cell Sensitizer Sr2508 (Etanidazole) in Combination with Cyclophosphamide
British Journal of Cancer. 1993 Oct;68(4) :756-766
PMID: ISI:A1993MA92200023   
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SR2508 sensitises certain hypoxic tumour cells in vitro and in vivo to the cytotoxic action of radiation and alkylating agents. The mechanism of sensitisation may derive in part from depletion of glutathione (GSH) and possibly inhibition of GSH- dependent enzymes in target cells. We treated 46 evaluable patients with cyclophosphamide 750-1000 mg m-2 followed by SR2508 at eight dose levels ranging from 2.5 to 15.0 gm-2. Each patient received SR2508 as a single agent initially, followed a week later by the combination of cyclophosphamide and SR2508. Initially, myelsuppression was the major toxicity; potentiation of cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia by SR2508 required a dose reduction of cyclophosphamide to 750 mg m-2 at SR2508 doses above 7.2 g m-2 . At doses above 9.4 g m-2 an acute syndrome of muscle pains and painful paresthesias of the extremities lasting 12-24 h was observed to occur with increasing severity. This side-effect was intolerable in two of three patients treated at 15.0 g m-2. The only other reproducible side-effect was nausea and vomiting which was controllable with antiemetics. Plasma and urine SR2508 concentrations were measured by HPLC in 45 patients. Plasma elimination curves fit a 2-compartment model. The mean terminal half-life at each dose level ranged from 5.1 - 5.8 h. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve was linearly related to dose, and mean total body clearance ranged from 46.6-94.0 ml-1 min-1 m-2; renal clearance accounted for 65.7- 79.3%. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide did not influence the kinetics of SR2508 in individual patients. Examination of the glutathione content of peripheral mononuclear cells and tumour samples showed that depletion to below 50% of control occurred in the majority of patients. GSH transferase inhibition occurred with a similar time-course, but to a lesser extent. These data suggest that the further evaluation of this regimen should be conducted with SR2508 administration preceding that of cyclophosphamide and that its evaluation in cyclophosphamide-sensitive tumours is warranted.
Times Cited: 5 English Article MA922 BRIT J CANCER