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Kozlowski LT , Porter CQ , Orleans CT , Pope MA , Heatherton T
Predicting Smoking Cessation with Self-Reported Measures of Nicotine Dependence - Ftq, Ftnd, and Hsi
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1994 Feb;34(3) :211-216
PMID: ISI:A1994ND73300005   
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In two independent studies, we explored the usefulness of three self-report measures of tobacco dependence - the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI). The FTND is a revised version of the FTQ. The HSI is identical to a two- question subset of the FTND. Study 1 involved 932 participants in a seven-session, five-week, group smoking cessation program, and it looked at the ability of these self-report tests to predict expired air carbon monoxide (i.e., heaviness of smoking) at beginning of treatment and cessation at end of treatment. Study 2 involved 1877 participants in a self-help smoking cessation program, and it looked at the prediction of cessation at 16-month follow-up. All tests made statistically reliable predictions of smoking cessation, but generally accounted for little variance (about 1%). In Study 1, the test scores were associated positively with carbon monoxide levels. The shorter (six vs. eight questions), more reliable FTND is to be preferred to the FTQ; and the HSI (two questions) works as well as the FTND. Evidence is presented that suggests that samples of high-scoring smokers will not be well differentiated from the mid-range to the high-end of the scores.