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Marcinkiewicz C , Lelkes PI , Sternberg M , Feuerstein GZ
Effects of Fluorescent Diamond Particles FDP-NV-800nm on Essential Biochemical Functions of Primary Human Umbilical Vein Cells and Human Hepatic Cell Line, HepG-2 in vitro (Part VI): Acute Biocompatibility Studies
Nanotechnol Sci Appl. 2020 ;13 :103-118
PMID: 33116443 PMCID: PMC7547810
AbstractBACKGROUND: Recently, we reported the safety and biocompatibility of fluorescent diamond particles, FDP-NV-Z-800nm (FDP-NV) injected intravenously into rats, where no morbidity and mortality were noted over a period of 3 months. The acute effects of FDP-NV-800nm particles on cultured human endothelial and hepatic cells remain unexplored. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to explore select cellular and biochemical functions in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and a human hepatic cancer cell line (HepG-2) exposed to FDP-NV-800 in vitro at exposure levels within the pharmacokinetics (Cmax and the nadir) previously reported in vivo. METHODS: Diverse cellular and biochemical functions were monitored, which cumulatively can provide insights into some vital cellular functions. Cell proliferation and migration were assessed by quantitative microscopy. Mitochondrial metabolic functions were tested by the MTT assay, and cytosolic esterase activity was studied by the calcein AM assay. Chaperons (CHOP), BiP and apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) were monitored by using Western blot (WB). MAPK Erk1/2 signaling was assessed by the detection of the phosphorylated form of the protein (P-Erk 1/2) and its translocation into the cell nucleus. RESULTS: At all concentrations tested (0.001-0.1mg/mL), FDP-NV did not affect any of the biomarkers of cell integrity of HepG2 cells. In contrast, the proliferation of HUVEC was affected at the highest concentration tested (0.1mg/mL, C(max)). Exposure of HUVEC to (0.01 mg/mL) FDP-NV had a mild-moderate effect on cell proliferation as evident in the MTT assay and was absent when proliferation was assessed by direct cell counting or by using the calcein AM assays. In both cell types, exposure to the highest concentration (0.1 mg/mL) of FDP-NV did neither affect FBS-stimulated cell signaling (MAPK Erk1/2 phosphorylation) nor did it activate of Caspase 3. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that FDP-NV-800nm are largely biocompatible with HepG-2 cells proliferation within the pharmacokinetic data reported previously. In contrast, HUVEC proliferation at the highest exposure dose (0.1 mg/mL) responded adversely with respect to several biomarkers of cell integrity. However, since the C(max) levels are very short-living, the risk for endothelial injury is likely minimal for slow rate cell proliferation such as endothelial cells.
Notes1177-8903 Marcinkiewicz, Cezary Lelkes, Peter I Orcid: 0000-0003-4954-3498 Sternberg, Mark Feuerstein, Giora Z Journal Article Nanotechnol Sci Appl. 2020 Oct 6;13:103-118. doi: 10.2147/NSA.S268107. eCollection 2020.