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Patterns of Ciliation and Ciliary Signaling in Cancer
Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Aug 7
PMID: 32761455 URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32761455
AbstractAmong the factors that have been strongly implicated in regulating cancerous transformation, the primary monocilium (cilium) has gained increasing attention. The cilium is a small organelle extending from the plasma membrane, which provides a localized hub for concentration of transmembrane receptors. These receptors transmit signals from soluble factors (including Sonic hedgehog (SHH), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA), WNT, TGFβ, NOTCH, and others) that regulate cell growth, as well as mechanosensory cues provided by flow or extracellular matrix. Ciliation is regulated by cell cycle, with most cells that are in G0 (quiescent) or early G1 ciliation and cilia typically absent in G2/M cells. Notably, while most cells organized in solid tissues are ciliated, cancerous transformation induces significant changes in ciliation. Most cancer cells lose cilia; medulloblastomas and basal cell carcinomas, dependent on an active SHH pathway, rely on ciliary maintenance. Changes in cancer cell ciliation are driven by core oncogenic pathways (EGFR, KRAS, AURKA, PI3K), and importantly ciliation status regulates functionality of those pathways. Ciliation is both influenced by targeted cancer therapies and linked to therapeutic resistance; recent studies suggest ciliation may also influence cancer cell metabolism and stem cell identity. We review recent studies defining the relationship between cilia and cancer.
NotesKiseleva, Anna A Nikonova, Anna S Golemis, Erica A Journal Article Germany Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Aug 7. doi: 10.1007/112_2020_36.