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McQueney MS , Markham GD
Investigation of Monovalent Cation Activation of S- Adenosylmethionine Synthetase Using Mutagenesis and Uranyl Inhibition
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1995 Aug 4;270(31) :18277-18284
PMID: ISI:A1995RM64200022   
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S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes the formation of AdoMet from ATP and L-methionine with subsequent hydrolysis of the bound tripolyphosphate intermediate. Maximal activity requires the presence of two divalent and one monovalent cation per active site, Recently, the x-ray structure of the Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase was solved, and the positions of the two Mg2+ binding sites were identified, Based on additional spherical electron density, the K+ binding site was postulated to be a nearby site where the uranyl heavy atom derivative also bound in the crystal, The side chain of glutamate 42 is within ligation distance of the metals. Mutagenesis of glutamate 42 to glutamine (E42QMetK) abolished monovalent cation activation and produced an enzyme that has kinetic properties virtually identical to those of K+- free wild type AdoMet synthetase in both the overall AdoMet synthetase reaction and in the hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate, Thus, there is a similar to 100-fold decrease in the V-max for AdoMet synthesis and large increases in the K-m values for both substrates. In contrast there is only a a-fold decrease in V- max for tripolyphosphate hydrolysis. The uranyl ion, UO22+, is a competitive inhibitor with respect to K+ (K-i = 350 nM) and is the first ion to bind at this site and inhibit the enzyme, The UO22+ inhibition is reversible and tight-binding, and results from UO22+ and not UO22+. ATP. Analogous to K+ activation, UO22+ predominantly inhibits AdoMet formation rather than tripolyphosphate hydrolysis, The kinetic results indicate that UO22+ inhibition is likely to result from interference with productive ATP binding, UO22+ remains a tight-binding inhibitor of the E42Q mutant, which suggests that K+ and UO22+ have different ligation preferences when bound in the monovalent cation binding pocket, The results support the model that glutamate 42 provides ligands to the K+ and has a major role in monovalent cation binding.
Times Cited: 15 Article RM642 J BIOL CHEM