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Proliferative signaling by ERBB proteins and RAF/MEK/ERK effectors in polycystic kidney disease
Cell Signal. 2019 Dec 9;67 :109497
PMID: 31830556   
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Abstract
A primary pathological feature of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the hyperproliferation of epithelial cells in renal tubules, resulting in formation of fluid-filled cysts. The proliferative aspects of the two major forms of PKD-autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), which arises from mutations in the polycystins PKD1 and PKD2, and autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD), which arises from mutations in PKHD1-has encouraged investigation into protein components of the core cell proliferative machinery as potential drivers of PKD pathogenesis. In this review, we examine the role of signaling by ERBB proteins and their effectors, with a primary focus on ADPKD. The ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR/ERBB1, HER2/ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4) are activated by extracellular ligands, inducing multiple pro-growth signaling cascades; among these, activation of signaling through the RAS GTPase, and the RAF, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 kinases enhance cell proliferation and restrict apoptosis during renal tubuloepithelial cyst formation. Characteristics of PKD include overexpression and mislocalization of the ERBB receptors and ligands, leading to enhanced activation and increased activity of downstream signaling proteins. The altered regulation of ERBBs and their effectors in PKD is influenced by enhanced activity of SRC kinase, which is promoted by the loss of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and an increase in cAMP-dependent PKA kinase activity that stimulates CFTR, driving the secretory phenotype of ADPKD. We discuss the interplay between ERBB/SRC signaling, and polycystins and their depending signaling, with emphasis on thes changes that affect cell proliferation in cyst expansion, as well as the inflammation-associated fibrogenesis, which characterizes progressive disease. We summarize the current progress of preclinical and clinical trials directed at inhibiting this signaling axis, and discuss potential future strategies that may be productive for controlling PKD.
Notes
1873-3913 Parker, Mitchell I Nikonova, Anna S Sun, Danlin Golemis, Erica A Journal Article England Cell Signal. 2019 Dec 9;67:109497. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2019.109497.