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Fu KK , Pajak TF , Marcial VA , Ortiz HG , Rotman M , Asbell SO , Coia LR , Vora NL , Byhardt R , Rubin P , Sorgen SD , Cox JD , Stetz J
Late Effects of Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Advanced Head and Neck-Cancer - Long-Term Follow-up Results of Rtog-83- 13
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1995 Jun 15;32(3) :577-588
PMID: ISI:A1995RE53300002   
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of late effects of hyperfractionated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer as a function of the dose delivered, as well as the daily interfraction interval. In addition, we wished to examine the influence of other prognostic factors including age, gender, primary site, T- and N-stage, and overall stage on the late effects of hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1987, 479 patients with advanced head and neck cancer were entered on a Phase I-LE/II dose escalation trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy. They were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 67.2, 72.0, 76.8, or 81.6 Gy, delivered at 1.2 Gy/fraction, twice a day (BID), 5 days/week. Of the 451 analyzable patients, 399 patients who received greater than or equal to 64.8 Gy and had a follow-up > 90 days were eligible for this study. Acute and late effects were scored with the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. For this analysis, patients were subclassified by the actual doses delivered and by an average daily interfraction interval of less than or equal to 4.5 h or > 4.5 h. The incidence of late effects was estimated using a cumulative incidence approach. Results: Fifty-nine patients received 67.2 +/- 2.4 Gy, 119 received 72.0 +/- 2.4 Gy, 98 received 76.8 +/- 2.4 Gy, and 123 received 81.6 +/- 2.4 Gy. The proportion of patients treated with a daily interfraction interval of > 4.5 h was 32, 50, 43, and 71%, respectively. The four treatment groups were well balanced with respect to pretreatment characteristics. The median follow-up was 1.71 years (range: 0.24-9.6) for all evaluable patients and 6.12 years for 85 alive patients. There was no significant difference in the incidence of late effects between the different dose levels. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late effects was 17, 14, 20, and 13% for grade 3, and 7, 3, 7, and 5% for grade 4. However, the incidence of late effects differed significantly with respect to daily interfraction interval. The cumulative incidence of grade 4 late effects increased from 6.3% at 2 years to 7.5% at 3 years to 8.0% at 4 years and 8.6% at 5 years with an interval of less than or equal to 4.5 h, while it remained at a constant of 2.0% with an interval of > 4.5 h during the same period (p = 0.0036). Multivariate analysis showed that among the prognostic factors examined, daily interfraction interval of less than or equal to 4.5 h was the only significant independent prognostic factor for the development of grade 3+ or grade 4 late effects (p = 0.0167 and p = 0.0013, respectively). Conclusion: Results of this randomized Phase I-LE/II trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer showed no apparent dose- response relationship for late effects within the range of 67.2-81.6 Gy. Daily interfraction interval was a significant independent factor for the development of late effects in a multivariate analysis.
Times Cited: 36 Article RE533 INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS