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Impact of PET/CT for Restaging Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation
J Surg Res. 2019 Nov;243 :242-248
PMID: 31229791 URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31229791
AbstractBACKGROUND: A major challenge in identifying candidates for nonoperative management of locally advanced rectal cancer is predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) following chemoradiation. We evaluated pre- and post-CRT PET-CT imaging to predict pCR and prognosis in this set of patients undergoing resection after neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients from 2002 to 2015 with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent CRT, pre- and post-CRT PET-CT imaging, and resection. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the association of PET-CT characteristics with pCR and survival. ROC curves were generated to define optimal cutoff points for predictive PET-CT characteristics. RESULTS: 125 patients were included. pCR rate was 28%, and follow-up was 48 mo. On multivariable analysis, patients who had a pCR had lower median post-CRT maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (3.2 versus 5.2, P = 0.009) and higher median %SUV decrease (72 versus 58%, P = 0.009). ROC curves were generated for %SUVmax decrease (AUC = 0.70) and post-CRT SUV (AUC = 0.69). Post-CRT SUVmax <4.3 and %SUVmax decrease of >66% were equally predictive of pCR with a sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 44%, and NPV of 86%. Median 5-y overall and relapse-free survival were improved for patients with post-CRT SUV <4.3 (OS: 86 versus 66%, P = 0.01; RFS: 75 versus 52%, P = 0.01) or %SUV decrease of >66% (OS, 82 versus 66%, P = 0.05; RFS, 75 versus 54%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT may be useful in identifying patients who did not achieve pCR, as well as overall survival in patients undergoing CRT for rectal cancer. Patients with a post-CRT SUV of >4.3 should be considered for operative management, as an estimated 86% of these patients will not have a pCR.
Notes1095-8673 Sorenson, Eric Lambreton, Fernando Yu, Jian Q Li, Tianyu Denlinger, Crystal S Meyer, Joshua E Sigurdson, Elin R Farma, Jeffrey M Journal Article United States J Surg Res. 2019 Nov;243:242-248. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.04.080. Epub 2019 Jun 21.