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Nicastro LK , Tursi SA , Le LS , Miller AL , Efimov A , Buttaro B , Tam V , Tukel C
Cytotoxic curli intermediates form during Salmonella biofilm development
J Bacteriol. 2019 Sep 15;201(18)
PMID: 31182496    PMCID: PMC6707925    URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31182496
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Abstract
Enterobacteriaceae produce amyloid proteins called curli that are the major proteinaceous component of biofilms. Amyloids are also produced by humans and are associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's. During the multi-step process of amyloid formation, monomeric subunits form oligomers, protofibrils, and finally mature fibrils. Amyloid beta oligomers are more cytotoxic to cells than the mature amyloid fibrils. Oligomeric intermediates of curli have not been previously detected. We determined that turbulence inhibited biofilm formation, and that, intriguingly, curli aggregates purified from cultures grown under high-turbulence conditions were structurally smaller and contained less DNA than did curli preparations from cultures grown with less turbulence. Using flow cytometry analysis, we demonstrated that CsgA was expressed in cultures exposed to higher turbulence but that these cultures had lower levels of cell death than less turbulent cultures. Our data suggests that the DNA released during cell death drives the formation of larger fibrillar structures. Consistent with this idea, addition of exogenous genomic DNA increased the size of the curli intermediates and led to binding to Thioflavin T at levels observed with mature aggregates. Similar to the intermediate oligomers of amyloid beta, intermediate curli aggregates were more cytotoxic than the mature curli fibrils when incubated with bone marrow-derived macrophages. The discovery of cytotoxic curli intermediates will enable research into the roles of amyloid intermediates in the pathogenesis of Salmonella and other bacteria that cause enteric infections.IMPORTANCE Amyloid proteins are the major proteinaceous components of biofilms, which are associated with up to 65% of human bacterial infections. Amyloids produced by human cells are also associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's. The amyloid monomeric subunits self-associate to form oligomers, protofibrils, and finally mature fibrils. Amyloid beta oligomers are more cytotoxic to cells than the mature amyloid fibrils. Here we detected oligomeric intermediates of curli for the first time. Like the oligomers of amyloid beta, intermediate curli fibrils were more cytotoxic than the mature curli fibrillar aggregates when incubated with bone marrow-derived macrophages. The discovery of cytotoxic curli intermediates will enable research into the roles of amyloid intermediates in the pathogenesis of Salmonella and other bacteria that cause enteric infections.
Notes
1098-5530 Nicastro, Lauren K Tursi, Sarah A Le, Long S Miller, Amanda L Efimov, Andrey Buttaro, Bettina Tam, Vincent Tukel, Cagla Journal Article United States J Bacteriol. 2019 Aug 22;201(18). pii: JB.00095-19. doi: 10.1128/JB.00095-19. Print 2019 Sep 15.