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Bandini M , Briganti A , Plimack ER , Niegisch G , Yu EY , Bamias A , Agarwal N , Sridhar SS , Sternberg CN , Vaishampayan U , Theodore C , Rosenberg JE , Bellmunt J , Galsky MD , Montorsi F , Necchi A
Modeling 1-year Relapse-free Survival After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Clinical T2-4N0M0 Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma: Endpoints for Phase 2 Trials
Eur Urol Oncol. 2019 May;2(3) :248-256
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BACKGROUND: Several ongoing phase 2 trials are evaluating new neoadjuvant therapy regimens in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The 1-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) after radical cystectomy (RC), with or without perioperative chemotherapy, can be used to model statistical assumptions and interpret outcomes from these studies. OBJECTIVE: To provide a benchmark for predicting 1-yr RFS in patients with cT2-4N0 MIBC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 950 patients with clinical stage T2-4N0 MIBC undergoing RC at 27 centers between 1990 and 2016. We assessed 1-yr RFS rates for patients managed with no perioperative chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), or NAC followed by AC. Cox regression analyses tested for 1-yr postsurgical RFS predictors. A Cox-based nomogram was developed to estimate 1-yr RFS and its accuracy was assessed in terms of Harrell's c-index, a calibration plot, and decision curve analysis. We report 1-yr RFS rates across the nomogram tertiles. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The 1-yr RFS rates were 67.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-72) after no perioperative chemotherapy, 76.9% (95% CI 72-83%) after NAC, 77.8% (95% CI 71-85%) after AC, and 57% (95% CI 37-87) after NAC+AC. On multivariable analysis, positive surgical margins (p=0.002), pT stage (p<0.0001), and pN stage (p<.0001) were significantly associated with RFS, while NAC was not (p=0.6). The model including all these factors yielded a c-index of 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.79), good calibration, and a high net benefit. The 1-yr RFS rates across nomogram tertiles were 90.5% (95% CI 87-94%), 73.4% (95% CI 68-79%), and 51.1% (95% CI 45-58%), respectively. The results lack external validation. CONCLUSIONS: Benchmark 1-yr RFS estimates for phase 2 design of new neoadjuvant trials are proposed and can be used for statistical assumptions, pending external validation. PATIENT SUMMARY: Our prognostic model predicting 1-yr survival free from recurrence of bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, with or without standard chemotherapy, could provide an improvement to the quality of phase 2 clinical trial designs and interpretation of their results.
2588-9311 Bandini, Marco Briganti, Alberto Plimack, Elizabeth R Niegisch, Gunter Yu, Evan Y Bamias, Aristotelis Agarwal, Neeraj Sridhar, Srikala S Sternberg, Cora N Vaishampayan, Ulka Theodore, Christine Rosenberg, Jonathan E Bellmunt, Joaquim Galsky, Matthew D Montorsi, Francesco Necchi, Andrea P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States Journal Article Netherlands Eur Urol Oncol. 2019 May;2(3):248-256. doi: 10.1016/j.euo.2018.08.009. Epub 2018 Sep 7.