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Algan O , Coia LR , Keller SM , Engstrom PF , Weiner LM , Schultheiss TE , Hanks GE
Management of Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus with Chemoradiation Alone or Chemoradiation Followed by Esophagectomy - Results of Sequential Nonrandomized Phase-Ii Studies
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1995 Jun 15;32(3) :753-761
PMID: ISI:A1995RE53300022   
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Purpose: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is increasing, but the optimal treatment for this disease is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of chemoradiation and chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy as treatment for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in sequential prospective nonrandomized phase II studies. Methods and Materials: Between May 1981 and June 1992, all previously untreated patients (N = 35) with potentially resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (clinical Stage I or II) were treated with curative intent in sequential prospective Phase II studies. From May 1981 to August 1987, 11 patients (median age 66) were treated with concurrent chemotherapy [mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil (5- FU)] and radiotherapy to a median dose of 60 Gy (CRT group). From September 1987 to June 1992, 24 patients (median age 65) were treated with the same regimen of chemoradiation followed by planned esophagectomy (CRT + PE group. Of these, 12 patients (median age 62) actually underwent esophagectomy (CRT + E subgroup). Results: The median overall survival was 19 months for the CRT group and 15 months for the CRT + PE group. For the CRT + E subgroup, the median overall survival was 33 months. The 3-year actuarial overall survival for the CRT and the CRT + PE groups were 36 and 28% (p = 0.949). The subset of patients treated with chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy had a 3- year actuarial overall survival of 33% (p = 0.274). The 3-year actuarial freedom from local failure rates were similar: 62% in the CRT group vs. 58% in the CRT + PE group. Of the 12 patients who underwent esophagectomy (CRT + E group), 9 (75%) were free of local failure. Four of 12 (33%) patients had no pathologic evidence of malignancy in their surgical specimen. Six of 11 patients (55%) in the CRT group were free of local failure at the time of analysis. Two of five patients in this group who had local recurrence at 2 and 10 months underwent surgical salvage with subsequent survivals of 20 and 100 months, respectively. Treatment-related mortality was 0 out of 11 in the CRT group and 2 out of 24 in the CRT + PE group. Dysphagia relief was similar in the CRT group vs. the CRT + E subgroup; however, a greater percentage of patients treated with chemoradiation alone had normal long-term swallowing function when compared to those patients also undergoing esophagectomy (100% vs. 73%). Conclusion: High-dose chemoradiation alone appears to provide similar survival and relief of dysphagia compared with high-dose chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy for patients with potentially resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma. Local failure may be higher in patients undergoing chemoradiation compared to chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, but surgical salvage is possible, thus providing similar overall local control. However, because of the small number of patients in each group, these treatment modalities need to be further evaluated in a prospective randomized Phase III study.
Times Cited: 19 Article RE533 INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS