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Golemis EA , Scheet P , Beck TN , Scolnick EM , Hunter DJ , Hawk E , Hopkins N
Molecular mechanisms of the preventable causes of cancer in the United States
Genes Dev. 2018 Jul 1;32(13-14) :868-902
PMID: 29945886    PMCID: PMC6075032   
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Annually, there are 1.6 million new cases of cancer and nearly 600,000 cancer deaths in the United States alone. The public health burden associated with these numbers has motivated enormous research efforts into understanding the root causes of cancer. These efforts have led to the recognition that between 40% and 45% of cancers are associated with preventable risk factors and, importantly, have identified specific molecular mechanisms by which these exposures modify human physiology to induce or promote cancer. The increasingly refined knowledge of these mechanisms, which we summarize here, emphasizes the need for greater efforts toward primary cancer prevention through mitigation of modifiable risk factors. It also suggests exploitable avenues for improved secondary prevention (which includes the development of therapeutics designed for cancer interception and enhanced techniques for noninvasive screening and early detection) based on detailed knowledge of early neoplastic pathobiology. Such efforts would complement the current emphasis on the development of therapeutic approaches to treat established cancers and are likely to result in far greater gains in reducing morbidity and mortality.
1549-5477 Golemis, Erica A Scheet, Paul Beck, Tim N Scolnick, Eward M Hunter, David J Hawk, Ernest Hopkins, Nancy F30 CA180607/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States P30 CA006927/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States R01 DK108195/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Review United States Genes Dev. 2018 Jul 1;32(13-14):868-902. doi: 10.1101/gad.314849.118. Epub 2018 Jun 26.