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Paul S , Breuninger LM , Tew KD , Shen HX , Kruh GD
ATP-dependent uptake of natural product cytotoxic drugs by membrane vesicles establishes MRP as a broad specificity transporter
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1996 Jul 9;93(14) :6929-6934
PMID: ISI:A1996UW79200017   
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Abstract
MRP is a recently isolated ATP-binding cassette family transporter. We previously reported transfection studies that established that MRP confers multidrug resistance [Kruh, G. D., Chan, A., Myers, K., Gaughan, K., Miki, T. & Aaronson, S. A. (1994) Cancer Res. 54, 1649-1652] and that expression of MRP is associated with enhanced cellular efflux of lipophilic cytotoxic agents [Breuninger, L. M., Paul, S., Gaughan, K., Miki, T., Chan, A., Aaronson, S. A. & Kruh, G. D. (1995) Cancer Res. 55, 5342-5347]. To examine the biochemical mechanism by which MRP confers multidrug resistance, drug uptake experiments were performed using inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from NIH 3T3 cells transfected with an MRP expression vector. ATP- dependent transport was observed for several lipophilic cytotoxic agents including daunorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine, as well as for the glutathione conjugate leukotriene C-4 (LTC(4)). However, only marginally increased uptake was observed for vinblastine and Taxol. Drug uptake was osmotically sensitive and saturable with regard to substrate concentration, with K-m values of 6.3 mu M, 4.4 mu M, 4.2 mu M, 35 nM, and 38 mu M, for daunorubicin, etoposide, vincristine, LTC(4), and ATP, respectively. The broad substrate specificity of MRP was confirmed by the observation that daunorubicin transport was competitively inhibited by reduced and oxidized glutathione, the glutathione conjugates S-(p-azidophenacyl)- glutathione (APA-SG) and S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (DNP- SG), arsenate, and the LTD(4) antagonist MK571. This study establishes that MRP pumps unaltered lipophilic cytotoxic drugs, and suggests that this activity is an important mechanism by which the transporter confers multidrug resistance. The present study also indicates that the substrate specificity of MRP is overlapping but distinct from that of P- glycoprotein, and includes both the neutral or mildly cationic natural product cytotoxic drugs and the anionic products of glutathione conjugation. The widespread expression of MRP in tis sues, combined with its ability to transport both lipophilic xenobiotics and the products of phase II detoxification, indicates that the transporter represents a widespread and remarkably versatile cellular defense mechanism.
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Times Cited: 60 English Article UW792 PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA