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Plecanatide-mediated activation of guanylate cyclase-C suppresses inflammation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice
World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Feb 06;8(1) :47-59
PMID: 28217374    PMCID: PMC5292606   
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AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide on colorectal dysplasia in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation driven colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in Apc+/Min-FCCC mice by administering DSS in their drinking water. Mice were fed a diet supplemented with plecanatide (0-20 ppm) and its effect on the multiplicity of histopathologically confirmed polypoid, flat and indeterminate dysplasia was evaluated. Plecanatide-mediated activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling was assessed in colon tissues by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by ELISA, protein kinase G-II and vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein by immunoblotting. Ki-67, c-myc and cyclin D1 were used as markers of proliferation. Cellular levels and localization of beta-catenin in colon tissues were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Uroguanylin (UG) and GC-C transcript levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A mouse cytokine array panel was used to detect cytokines in the supernatant of colon explant cultures. RESULTS: Oral treatment of Apc+/MinFCCC mice with plecanatide produced a statistically significant reduction in the formation of inflammation-driven polypoid, flat and indeterminate dysplasias. This anti-carcinogenic activity of plecanatide was accompanied by activation of cGMP/GC-C signaling mediated inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and reduced proliferation. Plecanatide also decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL1 TNF), chemokines (MIP-1, IP-10) and growth factors (GCSF and GMCSF) from colon explants derived from mice with acute DSS-induced inflammation. The effect of plecanatide-mediated inhibition of inflammation/dysplasia on endogenous expression of UG and GC-C transcripts was measured in intestinal tissues. Although GC-C expression was not altered appreciably, a statistically significant increase in the level of UG transcripts was detected in the proximal small intestine and colon, potentially due to a reduction in intestinal inflammation and/or neoplasia. Taken together, these results suggest that reductions in endogenous UG, accompanied by dysregulation in GC-C signaling, may be an early event in inflammation-promoted colorectal neoplasia; an event that can potentially be ameliorated by prophylactic intervention with plecanatide. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that orally administered plecanatide reduces the multiplicity of inflammation-driven colonic dysplasia in mice, demonstrating the utility for developing GC-C agonists as chemopreventive agents.
Chang, Wen-Chi L Masih, Shet Thadi, Anusha Patwa, Viren Joshi, Apoorva Cooper, Harry S Palejwala, Vaseem A Clapper, Margie L Shailubhai, Kunwar P30 CA006927/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States R21 CA133689/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States Journal Article United States World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Feb 6;8(1):47-59. doi: 10.4292/wjgpt.v8.i1.47.