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Santucci-Pereira J , George C , Armiss D , Russo IH , Vanegas JE , Sheriff F , de Cicco RL , Su Y , Russo PA , Bidinotto LT , Russo J
Mimicking pregnancy as a strategy for breast cancer prevention
Breast Cancer Manag. 2013 Jul 1;2(4) :283-294
PMID: 24738009    PMCID: PMC3984583   
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Pregnancy and its effects on breast cancer risk have been widely investigated; there is consensus among researchers that early pregnancy confers protection against breast cancer later in life, whereas nulliparity and late-age parity have been associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. The answer to the question of how pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk has been elusive; however, pregnancy, like breast cancer, is a similar hormone-dependent entity under direct control of estrogen, progesterone and, of particular importance, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In this report, we emphasize the main changes, previously described by our laboratory, in morphology and gene expression levels of the mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to known cancer-preventative conditions (pregnancy, hCG and progesterone + estrogen). In addition, we postulate a protective mechanism induced by hCG that could reduce the cell's potential to be transformed by carcinogens.
Santucci-Pereira, Julia George, Christina Armiss, David Russo, Irma H Vanegas, Johana E Sheriff, Fathima de Cicco, Ricardo Lopez Su, Yanrong Russo, Patricia A Bidinotto, Lucas T Russo, Jose R01 CA093599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States R21 CA124522/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States Breast Cancer Manag. 2013 Jul 1;2(4):283-294.