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Kaveh R , Li YS , Ranjbar S , Tehrani R , Brueck CL , Van Aken B
Changes in Arabidopsis thaliana Gene Expression in Response to Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions
Environmental Science & Technology. 2013 Sep;47(18) :10637-10644
PMID: WOS:000330096000070   
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The release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the environment has raised concerns about their effects on living organisms, including plants. In this study, changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs and silver ions (Ag+) were analyzed using Affymetrix expression microarrays. Exposure to 5 mg/L AgNPs (20 nm) for 10 days resulted in upregulation of 286 genes and downregulation of 81 genes by reference to nonexposed plants. Exposure to 5 mg/L Ag+ for 10 days resulted in upregulation of 84 genes and downregulation of 53 genes by reference to nonexposed plants. Many genes differentially expressed by AgNPs and Ag+ were found to be involved in the response of plants to various stresses: upregulated genes were primarily associated with the response to metals and oxidative stress (e g, vacuolar cation/proton exchanger, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450-dependent oxidase, and peroxidase), while downregulated genes were more associated with response to pathogens and hormonal stimuli [e.g., auxin-regulated gene involved in organ size (ARGOS), ethylene signaling pathway, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against fungi and bacteria]. A significant overlap was observed between genes differentially expressed in response to AgNPs and Ag+ (13 and 21% of total up- and downregulated genes, respectively), suggesting that AgNP-induced stress originates partly from silver toxicity and partly from nanoparticle-specific effects. Three highly upregulated genes in the presence of AgNPs, but not Ag+, belong to the thalianol biosynthetic pathway, which is thought to be involved in the plant defense system. Results from this study provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of the response of plants to AgNPs and Ag+.
Kaveh, Rashid Li, Yue-Sheng Ranjbar, Sibia Tehrani, Rouzbeh Brueck, Christopher L. Van Aken, Benoit