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Hu L , Filippakis H , Huang HM , Yen TJ , Gjoerup OV
Replication Stress and Mitotic Dysfunction in Cells Expressing Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen
Journal of Virology. 2013 Dec;87(24) :13179-13192
PMID: WOS:000327443300011    PMCID: PMC3838287   
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We previously demonstrated that simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) binds to the Bub1 kinase, a key regulator of the spindle checkpoint and chromosome segregation. Bub1 mutations or altered expression patterns are linked to chromosome missegregation and are considered to be a driving force in some human cancers. Here we report that LT, dependent on Bub1 binding, causes micronuclei, lagging chromatin, and anaphase bridges, which are hallmarks of chromosomal instability (CIN) and Bub1 insufficiency. Using time-lapse microscopy, we demonstrate that LT imposes a Bub1 binding-dependent delay in the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Kinetochore fibers reveal that LT, via Bub1 binding, causes aberrant kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) attachments and a shortened interkinetochore distance, consistent with a lack of tension. Previously, we showed that LT also induces the DNA damage response (DDR) via Bub1 binding. Using inducible LT cell lines, we show that an activated DDR was observed before the appearance of anaphase bridges and micronuclei. Furthermore, LT induction in serum-starved cells demonstrated gamma-H2AX accumulation in cells that had not yet entered mitosis. Thus, DDR activation can occur independently of chromosome segregation defects. Replication stress pathways may be responsible, because signatures of replication stress were observed, which were attenuated by exogenous supplementation with nucleosides. Our observations allow us to propose a model that explains and integrates the diverse manifestations of genomic instability induced by LT.
Hu, Liang Filippakis, Harilaos Huang, Haomin Yen, Timothy J. Gjoerup, Ole V.