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Ibragimova I , Slifker MJ , Maradeo ME , Banumathy G , Dulaimi E , Uzzo RG , Cairns P
Genome-wide promoter methylome of small renal masses
PLoS One. 2013 ;8(10) :e77309
PMID: 24204800    PMCID: PMC3811999   
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Abstract
The majority of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is now incidentally detected and presents as small renal masses (SRMs) defined as </=4 cm in size. SRMs are heterogeneous comprising several histological types of RCC each with different biology and behavior, and benign tumors mainly oncocytoma. The varied prognosis of the different types of renal tumor has implications for management options. A key epigenetic alteration involved in the initiation and progression of cancer is aberrant methylation in the promoter region of a gene. The hypermethylation is associated with transcriptional repression and is an important mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in neoplastic cells. We have determined the genome-wide promoter methylation profiles of 47 pT1a and 2 pT1b clear cell, papillary or chromophobe RCC, 25 benign renal oncocytoma </=4 cm and 4 normal renal parenchyma specimens by Infinium HumanMethylation27 beadchip technology. We identify gene promoter hypermethylation signatures that distinguish clear cell and papillary from each other, from chromophobe and oncocytoma, and from normal renal cells. Pairwise comparisons revealed genes aberrantly hypermethylated in a tumor type but unmethylated in normal, and often unmethylated in the other renal tumor types. About 0.4% to 1.7% of genes comprised the promoter methylome in SRMs. The Infinium methylation score for representative genes was verified by gold standard technologies. The genes identified as differentially methylated implicate pathways involved in metabolism, tissue response to injury, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), signal transduction and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), cancer, and stem cell regulation in the biology of RCC. Our findings contribute towards an improved understanding of the development of RCC, the different biology and behavior of histological types, and discovery of molecular subtypes. The differential methylation signatures may have utility in early detection and particularly differential diagnosis for prognostic stratification as well as identify novel gene and pathway targets for therapeutic intervention.
Notes
Ibragimova, Ilsiya Slifker, Michael J Maradeo, Marie E Banumathy, Gowrishankar Dulaimi, Essel Uzzo, Robert G Cairns, Paul United States PLoS One. 2013 Oct 24;8(10):e77309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077309.