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Ma X , Xu RH , Roscoe F , Whitbeck JC , Eisenberg RJ , Cohen GH , Sigal LJ
The mature virion of ectromelia virus, a pathogenic poxvirus, is capable of intrahepatic spread and can serve as a target for delayed therapy
J Virol. 2013 Jun;87(12) :7046-53
PMID: 23596297   
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Orthopoxviruses (OPVs), which include the agent of smallpox (variola virus), the zoonotic monkeypox virus, the vaccine and zoonotic species vaccinia virus, and the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), form two types of infectious viral particles: the mature virus (MV), which is cytosolic, and the enveloped virus (EV), which is extracellular. It is believed that MVs are required for viral entry into the host, while EVs are responsible for spread within the host. Following footpad infection of susceptible mice, ECTV spreads lymphohematogenously, entering the liver at 3 to 4 days postinfection (dpi). Afterwards, ECTV spreads intrahepatically, killing the host. We found that antibodies to an MV protein were highly effective at curing mice from ECTV infection when administered after the virus reached the liver. Moreover, a mutant ECTV that does not make EV was able to spread intrahepatically and kill immunodeficient mice. Together, these findings indicate that MVs are sufficient for the spread of ECTV within the liver and could have implications regarding the pathogenesis of other OPVs, the treatment of emerging OPV infections, as well as strategies for preparedness in case of accidental or intentional release of pathogenic OPVs.
Ma, Xueying Xu, Ren-Huan Roscoe, Felicia Whitbeck, J Charles Eisenberg, Roselyn J Cohen, Gary H Sigal, Luis J P30CA006927/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States U19AI083008/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural United States Journal of virology J Virol. 2013 Jun;87(12):7046-53. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03158-12. Epub 2013 Apr 17.