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Thames HD , Kuban D , Levy LB , Horwitz EM , Kupelian P , Martinez A , Michalski J , Pisansky T , Sandler H , Shipley W , Zelefsky M , Zietman A
The role of overall treatment time in the outcome of radiotherapy of prostate cancer: An analysis of biochemical failure in 4839 men treated between 1987 and 1995
Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2010 Jul;96(1) :6-12
PMID: ISI:000280261500002   
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Purpose: Assess the importance of overall time (OT) and dose for biochemical failure (BF) after external-beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer in a retrospective analysis of a nine-institution database with 4839 patients. Patients and methods: Relevant baseline factors (T stage, Gleason score, initial PSA) were available for 4338 men. Cox models were used to estimate the effects of dose and OT corrected for baseline factors, treatment year, institution and interactions, and differences in post-treatment PSA-measurement intervals. After exclusion of very short and long intervals, patient numbers were 1445 events/3426 at risk (endpoint all BFs), and 1177 events/3354 at risk (endpoint exclusion of BFs that were likely distant failures). Separate analyses were carried out by risk group for men who received <70 Gy and >= 70 Gy. Results: Neither dose nor OT was significant when the analysis was restricted to doses <70 Gy, while for patients treated to 70 Gy or higher there were significant influences of both dose and OT on outcome in low- and intermediate-risk patients. These effects were quantified as a relative increase after 5 years followup of 6% in BFs for a 1-week increase in OT, a relative decrease of 15% in BFs for a 6-Gy increase in dose, and a dose equivalent of proliferation of 0.24 Gy/day. As the dose per fraction was nearly constant, the data contain no information on the alpha/beta ratio. Conclusion: The results show that OT and dose are significant determinants of outcome of radiotherapy in low- and intermediate-risk patients treated to 70 Gy or higher, and suggest that meaningful improvements in outcome may be targeted by modest increases in total dose and decreases in OT. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 96 (2010) 6-12
Thames, Howard D. Kuban, Deborah Levy, Larry B. Horwitz, Eric M. Kupelian, Patrick Martinez, Alvaro Michalski, Jeffrey Pisansky, Thomas Sandler, Howard Shipley, William Zelefsky, Michael Zietman, Anthony 30 Elsevier ireland ltd; elsevier house, brookvale plaza, east park shannon, co, clare, 00000 630gp