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Fischer AH , Zhao C , Li QK , Gustafson KS , Eltoum IE , Tambouret R , Benstein B , Savaloja LC , Kulesza P
The Cytologic Criteria of Malignancy
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2010 Jul;110(4) :795-811
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Abstract
Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes. but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts. J. Cell. Biochem. 110: 795-811, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss. Inc.
Notes
Fischer, Andrew H. Zhao, Chengquan Li, Qing Kay Gustafson, Karen S. Eltoum, Isam-Eldin Tambouret, Rosemary Benstein, Barbara Savaloja, Lynnette C. Kulesza, Peter Wiley-liss Hoboken 619os