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Tan Y , You H , Wu C , Altomare DA , Testa JR
Appl1 is dispensable for mouse development, and loss of Appl1 has growth factor-selective effects on Akt signaling in murine embryonic fibroblasts
J Biol Chem. 2010 Feb 26;285(9) :6377-89
PMID: 20040596    PMCID: PMC2825433   
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The adaptor protein APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology (PH), phosphotyrosine binding (PTB), and leucine zipper motifs) was first identified as a binding protein of AKT2 by yeast two-hybrid screening. APPL1 was subsequently found to bind to several membrane-bound receptors and was implicated in their signal transduction through AKT and/or MAPK pathways. To determine the unambiguous role of Appl1 in vivo, we generated Appl1 knock-out mice. Here we report that Appl1 knock-out mice are viable and fertile. Appl1-null mice were born at expected Mendelian ratios, without obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Moreover, Akt activity in various fetal tissues was unchanged compared with that observed in wild-type littermates. Studies of isolated Appl1(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed that Akt activation by epidermal growth factor, insulin, or fetal bovine serum was similar to that observed in wild-type MEFs, although Akt activation by HGF was diminished in Appl1(-/-) MEFs. To rule out a possible redundant role played by the related Appl2, we used small interfering RNA to knock down Appl2 expression in Appl1(-/-) MEFs. Unexpectedly, cell survival was unaffected under normal culture conditions, and activation of Akt was unaltered following epidermal growth factor stimulation, although Akt activity did decrease further after HGF stimulation. Furthermore, we found that Appl proteins are required for HGF-induced cell survival and migration via activation of Akt. Our studies suggest that Appl1 is dispensable for development and only participate in Akt signaling under certain conditions.
Tan, Yinfei You, Huihong Wu, Chao Altomare, Deborah A Testa, Joseph R CA06927/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States CA77429/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States The Journal of biological chemistry J Biol Chem. 2010 Feb 26;285(9):6377-89. Epub 2009 Dec 29.