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Fu J , Zhang JR , Jin F , Patchefsky J , Braunewell KH , Klein-Szanto AJ
Promoter Regulation of the Visinin-like Subfamily of Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins by Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009 Oct;284(40) :27577-27586
PMCID: PMC2785686   
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VILIP-1 (gene name VSNL1), a member of the neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein family, acts as a tumor suppressor gene by inhibiting cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasiveness. VILIP-1 expression is down-regulated in several types of human cancer. In human non-small cell lung cancer, we found that down-regulation was due to epigenetic changes. Consequently, in this study we analyzed the VSNL1 promoter and its regulation. Serial truncation of the proximal 2-kb VSNL1 promoter (VP-1998) from its 5' terminus disclosed that the last 3' terminal 100-bp promoter fragment maintained similar promoter activity as compared with VP-1998 and therefore was referred to as VSNL1 minimal promoter. When the 5' terminal 50 bp were deleted from the minimal promoter, the activity was dramatically decreased, suggesting that the deleted 50 bp contained a potential cis-acting element crucial for promoter activity. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico transcription factor binding analysis of VSNL1 promoter identified nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1/alpha-PAL as a major player in regulating VSNL1 minimal promoter activity. The function of NRF-1 was further confirmed using dominant-negative NRF-1 overexpression and NRF-1 small interfering RNA knockdown. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation provided evidence for direct NRF-1 binding to the VSNL1 promoter. Methylation of the NRF-1-binding site was found to be able to regulate VSNL1 promoter activity. Our results further indicated that NRF-1 could be a regulatory factor for gene expression of the other visinin-like subfamily members including HPCAL4, HPCAL1, HPCA, and NCALD.
Fu, Jian Zhang, Jirong Jin, Fang Patchefsky, Jamie Braunewell, Karl-Heinz Klein-Szanto, Andres J. Amer soc biochemistry molecular biology inc Bethesda 499oj