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Malyukova I , Murray KF , Zhu CR , Boedeker E , Kane A , Patterson K , Peterson JR , Donowitz M , Kovbasnjuk O
Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis
American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2009 Jan;296(1) :G78-G92
PMID: ISI:000262063400009    PMCID: PMC2636932   
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Malyukova I, Murray KF, Zhu C, Boedeker E, Kane A, Patterson K, Peterson JR, Donowitz M, Kovbasnjuk O. Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G78-G92, 2009. First published October 30, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90347.2008.-Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor-negative intestinal epithelial cells remain largely uncharacterized. We used samples of human intestinal tissue from patients with E. coli O157:H7 infection to detect the intestinal sites of bacterial colonization and characterize the distribution of Shiga toxins. We further used a model of largely Gb3-negative T84 intestinal epithelial monolayers treated with B-subunit of Shiga toxin 1 to determine the mechanisms of non-receptor-mediated toxin uptake. We now report that E. coli O157: H7 were found at the apical surface of epithelial cells only in the ileocecal valve area and that both toxins were present in large amounts inside surface and crypt epithelial cells in all tested intestinal samples. Our in vitro data suggest that macropinocytosis mediated through Src activation significantly increases toxin endocytosis by intestinal epithelial cells and also stimulates toxin transcellular transcytosis. We conclude that Shiga toxin is taken up by human intestinal epithelial cells during E. coli O157: H7 infection regardless of the presence of bacterial colonies. Macropinocytosis might be responsible for toxin uptake by Gb3-free intestinal epithelial cells and transcytosis. These observations provide new insights into the understanding of Shiga toxin contribution to enterohemorrhagic E. coli-related intestinal and systemic diseases.
Malyukova, Irina Murray, Karen F. Zhu, Chengru Boedeker, Edgar Kane, Anne Patterson, Kathleen Peterson, Jeffrey R. Donowitz, Mark Kovbasnjuk, Olga 82 AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC; 9650 ROCKVILLE PIKE, BETHESDA, MD 20814 USA 389AX