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Mabuchi S , Altomare DA , Connolly DC , Klein-Szanto A , Litwin S , Hoelzle MK , Hensley HH , Hamilton TC , Testa JR
RAD001 (Everolimus) Delays Tumor Onset and Progression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Ovarian Cancer
Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15;67(6) :2408-13
PMID: 17363557   
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is thought to play a critical role in regulating cell growth, cell cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. Because the AKT-mTOR pathway is frequently hyperactivated in ovarian cancer, we hypothesized that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (Everolimus) would inhibit ovarian tumorigenesis in transgenic mice that spontaneously develop ovarian carcinomas. We used TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice, which develop bilateral ovarian serous adenocarcinomas accompanied by ascites and peritoneal dissemination. Fifty-eight female TgMISIIR-TAg mice were treated with 5 mg/kg RAD001 or placebo twice weekly from 5 to 20 weeks of age. To monitor tumor development, mice were examined biweekly using magnetic resonance microimaging. In vivo effects of RAD001 on Akt-mTOR signaling, tumor cell proliferation, and blood vessel area were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. RAD001 treatment markedly delayed tumor development. Tumor burden was reduced by approximately 84%. In addition, ascites formation, together with peritoneal dissemination, was detected in only 21% of RAD001-treated mice compared with 74% in placebo-treated animals. Approximately 30% of RAD001-treated mice developed early ovarian carcinoma confined within the ovary, whereas all placebo-treated mice developed advanced ovarian carcinoma. Treatment with RAD001 diminished the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor-derived cell lines and inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. RAD001 also attenuated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and inhibited the invasiveness of tumor-derived cells. Taken together, these preclinical findings suggest that mTOR inhibition, alone or in combination with other molecularly targeted drugs, could represent a promising chemopreventive strategy in women at high familial risk of ovarian cancer. [Cancer Res 2007;67(6):2408-13].