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Iyer RV , Kim E , Schneider RF , Chapman JD
A dual hypoxic marker technique for measuring oxygenation change within individual tumors
British Journal of Cancer. 1998 Jul;78(2) :163-169
PMID: ISI:000074738700052   
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Rodent tumour models have been the 'workhorse' for tumour oxygenation research and for investigating radiobiological hypoxic fraction. Because of the intertumour heterogeneity of blood flow and related parameters, most studies have pooled information derived from several different tumours to establish the statistical significance of specific measurements. But it is the oxygenation status of and its modulation in individual rumours that has important prognostic significance. In that regard, the bioreducible hypoxic marker technique was tested for its potential to quantify oxygenation changes within individual tumours. beta-D-Iodinated azomycin galactoside (IAZG) and beta-D-iodinated azomycin xylopyranoside (IAZXP) were each radiolabelled with iodine-125 and iodine-131 for measurements of animal tumour oxygenation. The tumour-blood (T/B) ratio of marker radioactivity in mice after the renal excretion of unbound marker (at 3 h and longer times) had been shown to be proportional to radiobiological hypoxic fraction. When markers labelled with both radioisotopes were administered simultaneously to EMT-6 tumour-bearing scid mice, T/B ratios were found to vary by up to 300% between different tumours, with an average intratumour variation of only similar to 4%. When the markers were administered 2.5-3.0 h apart, changes in T/B ratios of 8-25% were observed in 10 out of 28 (36%) tumours, Changes to both higher and lower hypoxic fraction were observed, suggestive of acute or cycling hypoxia. When 0.8 mg g(-1) nicotinamide plus carbogen was administered to increase tumour oxygenation, reductions in T/B ratios (mean Delta T/B similar to 38%) were observed in all tumours. Similar results were obtained with Dunning rat prostate carcinomas growing in Fischer X Copenhagen rats whose T/B ratios of IAZG and radiobiological hypoxic fractions are significantly lower. These studies suggest that fluctuating hypoxia can account for at least 25% of the total hypoxic fraction in some tumours and that correlations between bioreducible marker avidity and related tumour properties will be optimal when the independent assays are performed over the same time period. This dual hypoxic marker technique should prove useful for investigating both spontaneous and induced oxygenation changes within individual rodent tumours.
Times Cited: 4 English Article ZZ530 BRIT J CANCER