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Houry WA , Sauder JM , Roder H , Scheraga HA
Definition of amide protection factors for early kinetic intermediates in protein folding
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998 Apr 14;95(8) :4299-4302
PMID: ISI:000073120800043   
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Hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments have been used previously to investigate the structures of well defined states of a given protein. These include the native state, the unfolded state, and any intermediates that can be stably populated at equilibrium. More recently, the hydrogen-deuterium exchange technique has been applied in kinetic labeling experiments to probe the structures of transiently formed intermediates on the kinetic folding pathway of a given protein. From these equilibrium and nonequilibrium studies, protection factors are usually obtained. These protection factors are defined as the ratio of the rate of exchange of a given backbone amide when it is in a fully solvent-exposed state (usually obtained from model peptides) to the rate of exchange of that amide in some state of the protein or in some intermediate on the folding pathway of the protein. This definition is straightforward for the case of equilibrium studies; however, it is less clear-cut for the case of transient kinetic intermediates. To clarify the concept for the case of burst-phase intermediates, we have introduced and mathematically defined two different types of protection factors: one is P-struc, which is more related to the structure of the intermediate, and the other is P-app, which is more related to the stability of the intermediate. Kinetic hydrogen- deuterium exchange data from disulfide-intact ribonuclease A and from cytochrome c are discussed to explain the use and implications of these two definitions.
Times Cited: 6 English Article ZH535 PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA