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Valicenti RK , DeSilvio M , Hanks GE , Porter A , Brereton H , Rosenthal SA , Shipley WU , Sandler HM , Haile RW , Thomas DC , McGuire V , Felberg A , John EM , Milne RL , Hopper JL , Jenkins MA , Levine AJ , Daly MM , Buys SS , Senie RT , Andrulis IL , Knight JA , Godwin AK , Southey M , McCredie MRE , Giles GG , Andrews L , Tucker K , Miron A , Apicella C , Tesoriero A , Bane A , Pike MC , Whittemore AS
Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of radiation therapy oncology group protocol 92-02 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use, and breast cancer before age 50
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS LA English DT Article DE prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen doubling time; mortality; surrogate endpoint. 2006 Oct;15(10) :1863-1870
PMID: ISI:000241616800019   
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Abstract
Background: Understanding the effect of oral contraceptives on risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers is important because oral contraceptive use is a common, modifiable practice. Methods: We studied 497 BRCA1 and 307 BRCA2 mutation carriers, of whom 195 and 128, respectively, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Case-control analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression with adjustments for family history and familial relationships and were restricted to subjects with a reference age under 50 years. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no significant association between risk of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year [odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-1.12] or duration of oral contraceptive use (P-trend = 0.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, there was no association with use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.90-2.92); however, there was an association of elevated risk with oral contraceptive use for at least 5 years (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.08-3.94) and with duration of use (ORtrend per year of use, 1.08; P = 0.008). Similar results were obtained when we considered only use of oral contraceptives that first started in 1975 or later. Conclusions: We found no evidence overall that use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year is associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers before age 50. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, use of oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among women who use them for at least 5 years. Further studies reporting results separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are needed to resolve this important issue. C1 Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Calif Keck Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA. Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Hlth Res & Policy, Stanford, CA 94305 USA. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. Early Detect Lab, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Fox Chase Canc Ctr, Philadelphia, PA 19111 USA. Univ Utah, Dept Hematol Oncol, Salt Lake City, UT USA. Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, New York, NY USA. Mt Sinai Hosp, Canc Care Ontario, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada. Mt Sinai Hosp, Samuel Lunenfeld Res Inst, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada. Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Canc Council Victoria, Canc Epidemiol Ctr, Carlton, Vic, Australia. Prince Wales Univ, Hereditary Canc Clin, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Canc Biol, Dana Farber Canc Inst, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Peter MacCallum Canc Ctr, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
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