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Das IJ , Cheng EC , Freedman G , Fowble B
Lung and heart dose volume analyses with CT simulator in radiation treatment of breast cancer
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 1998 Aug 1;42(1) :11-19
PMID: ISI:000075901400002   
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Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis and cardiac effects are directly related to the irradiated lung and heart volumes in the treatment fields. The central lung distance (CLD) from a tangential breast radiograph is shown to be a significant indicator of ipsilateral irradiated lung volume. Retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose volume of lung and heart with actual volume data from a CT simulator in the treatment of breast cancer is presented with respect to CLD. Methods and Materials: The heart and lung volumes in the tangential treatment fields were analyzed in 108 consecutive cases (52 left and 56 right breast) referred for CT simulation. All patients in this study were immobilized and placed on an inclined breast board in actual treatment setup. Both arms were stretched over head to avoid collision with the scanner aperture. Radiopaque marks were placed on the medial and lateral borders of the tangential fields. All patients were scanned in spiral mode with slice width and thickness of 3 mm each, respectively. The lung and heart structures as well as irradiated areas were delineated on each slice and respective volumes were accurately measured. The treatment beam parameters were recorded and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for the measurement of the CLD and analysis. Results: Using CT data the mean volume and standard deviation of left and right lungs were 1307.7 +/- 297.7 cm(3) and 1529.6 +/- 298.5 cm(3), respectively. The magnitude of irradiated volume in left and right lung is nearly equal for the same CLD that produces different percent irradiated volumes (PIV). The left and right PIV lungs are 8.3 +/- 4.7% and 6.6 +/- 3.7%, respectively. The PIV data have shown to correlate with CLD with second- and third-degree polynomials; however, in this study a simple straight line regression is used to provide better confidence than the higher order polynomials. The regression lines for the left and right breasts are very different based on actual CT data. The slopes of regression lines for the left and right lung are 0.6%/mm and 0.5%/mm, respectively which is statistically different with the p value of 0.01. A maximum heart PIV of >3.0% is observed in 80% of the patients. The heart PIV is inversely correlated with gantry angle and weakly correlated with CLD. Conclusions: The CT- simulator provides accurate volumetric information of the heart and lungs in the treatment fields. The lung PIV is directly correlated to the CLD (0.6%/mm and 0.5%/mm for the left and right lungs). Left and right lungs have different volumes and hence, different regression lines are recommended. An additional 12% lung volume could be irradiated in the supraclavicular held. Heart volume is not correlated with the CLD. The heart PIV is associated to the beam angle. Heart volume may not be accurately visualized in a tangential radiograph; however, this can be easily seen in a DRR with contour delineation and can be minimized with proper beam parameters iteratively with a virtual simulator. Lung and heart PIV along with dose volume histograms (DVH) are essential in reducing pulmonary and cardiac complications. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.
Times Cited: 16 English Article 119MZ INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS