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Alpaugh RK , Schultz J , McAleer C , Giantonio BJ , Persson R , Burnite M , Nielsen SE , Vitek L , Persson B , Weiner LM
Superantigen-targeted therapy: Phase I escalating repeat dose trial of the fusion protein PNU-214565 in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies
Clinical Cancer Research. 1998 Aug;4(8) :1903-1914
PMID: ISI:000075327600011   
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Antibody-directed, superantigen-induced cytotoxicity has been shown to have potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects in preclinical models, In the present study, PNU-214565, a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the Fab of the monoclonal antibody C242 and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), was used in an escalating repeat dose Phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. A prior single-dose Phase I clinical trial had demonstrated safety at doses of 1.5 ng/kg with toxicities of fever and hypotension that were not dose related, Twenty-seven patients (age range, 36-75 years; median, 62; 14 males and 13 females; 23 colorectal and 4 pancreatic) were treated in the present study with one cycle of four consecutive daily 3-h infusions of PNU-214565 at doses of 0.15 ng/kg (n = 3); 0,5 ng/kg (n = 3), 1.5 ng/kg (n = 4), 2.75 ng/kg (n = 12), and 3.5 ng/kg (n = 5), All patients had a good performance status [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: PS = 0 (n 15), PS = 1 (n = 12)]. As in the single-dose trial, fever and hypotension were the most common toxicities, Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), consisting of transient hypotension responsive to dopamine, was experienced by one patient treated at the 2.75 ng/kg dose level. One patient with pancreatic cancer metastatic to the liver experienced a partial response of hepatic metastases with stable pancreatic head abnormalities by computed tomography scan. Further dose escalation was suspended when two patients treated in a companion repeat dose Phase I study experienced DLT at the 4 ng/kg dose level, Multiparameter analyses on all patients treated in the two companion single-dose and two- repeated-dose Phase I trials revealed that the levels of patients' pretreatment anti-SEA antibodies protected against toxicity at a given drug dose. By jointly considering weight and the baseline anti-SEA concentration in a patient, it is possible to assign a PNU-214565 dose that will induce systemic cytokine release (a surrogate test to assess for the presence of uncomplexed drug and its ability to induce systemic cellular activation) without DLT. This pharmacodynamically based dosing scheme will be tested in future repeated-dose clinical trials and will define maximally tolerated doses of this powerful new immunotherapy approach.
Times Cited: 13 English Article 109NA CLIN CANCER RES