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Phillips JJ , Chua MM , Rall GF , Weiss SR
Murine coronavirus spike glycoprotein mediates degree of viral spread, inflammation, and virus-induced immunopathology in the central nervous system
Virology. 2002 Sep 15;301(1) :109-120
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The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) spike glycoprotein is a major determinant of neurovirulence. We investigated how alterations in spike affect neurovirulence using-two isogenic recombinant viruses differing exclusively in spike. S4R, containing the MHV-4 spike gene, is dramatically more neurovirulent than SA59R, containing the MHV-A59 spike gene (J. J. Phillips, M. M. Chua, E. Lavi, and S. R. Weiss, 1999, J. Virol. 73, 7752-7760). We examined the contribution of differences in cellular tropism, viral spread, and the immune response to, infection to the differential neurovirulence of S4R and SA59R. MHV-4 spike-mediated neurovirulence was associated with extensive viral spread in the brain in both neurons and astrocytes. Infection of primary hippocampal neuron cultures demonstrated that S4R spread more rapidly than SA59R and suggested that spread may occur between cells in close physical contact. In addition, S4R infection induced a massive influx of lymphocytes into the brain, a higher percentage of CD8(+) T cells, and a higher frequency of MHV-specific CD8(+) T cells relative SA59R infection. Despite this robust and viral-specific immune response to S4R infection, infection of RAG1-/- mice suggested that immune-mediated pathology also contributes to the high neurovirulence of S4R. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
Article English VIROLOGY 598BG