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Liu M , Wu N , Xu K , Saaoud F , Vasilopoulos E , Shao Y , Zhang R , Wang J , Shen H , Yang WY , Lu Y , Sun Y , Drummer Cth , Liu L , Li L , Hu W , Yu J , Praticò D , Sun J , Jiang X , Wang H , Yang X
Organelle Crosstalk Regulators Are Regulated in Diseases, Tumors, and Regulatory T Cells: Novel Classification of Organelle Crosstalk Regulators
Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 ;8 :713170
PMID: 34368262    PMCID: PMC8339352    URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34368262
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Abstract
To examine whether the expressions of 260 organelle crosstalk regulators (OCRGs) in 16 functional groups are modulated in 23 diseases and 28 tumors, we performed extensive -omics data mining analyses and made a set of significant findings: (1) the ratios of upregulated vs. downregulated OCRGs are 1:2.8 in acute inflammations, 1:1 in metabolic diseases, 1:1.2 in autoimmune diseases, and 1:3.8 in organ failures; (2) sepsis and trauma-upregulated OCRG groups such as vesicle, mitochondrial (MT) fission, and mitophagy but not others, are termed as the cell crisis-handling OCRGs. Similarly, sepsis and trauma plus organ failures upregulated seven OCRG groups including vesicle, MT fission, mitophagy, sarcoplasmic reticulum-MT, MT fusion, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and autophagosome/endosome-lysosome fusion, classified as the cell failure-handling OCRGs; (3) suppression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in endothelial and epithelial cells is required for viral replications, which classify this decreased group as the viral replication-suppressed OCRGs; (4) pro-atherogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), oxidized-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (oxPAPC), and interferons (IFNs) totally upregulated 33 OCRGs in endothelial cells (ECs) including vesicle, MT fission, mitophagy, MT fusion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-MT contact, ER- plasma membrane (PM) junction, autophagosome/endosome-lysosome fusion, sarcoplasmic reticulum-MT, autophagosome-endosome/lysosome fusion, and ER-Golgi complex (GC) interaction as the 10 EC-activation/inflammation-promoting OCRG groups; (5) the expression of OCRGs is upregulated more than downregulated in regulatory T cells (Tregs) from the lymph nodes, spleen, peripheral blood, intestine, and brown adipose tissue in comparison with that of CD4(+)CD25(-) T effector controls; (6) toll-like receptors (TLRs), reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and inflammasome-activated regulator caspase-1 regulated the expressions of OCRGs in diseases, virus-infected cells, and pro-atherogenic DAMP-treated ECs; (7) OCRG expressions are significantly modulated in all the 28 cancer datasets, and the upregulated OCRGs are correlated with tumor immune infiltrates in some tumors; (8) tumor promoter factor IKK2 and tumor suppressor Tp53 significantly modulate the expressions of OCRGs. Our findings provide novel insights on the roles of upregulated OCRGs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancers, and novel pathways for the future therapeutic interventions for inflammations, sepsis, trauma, organ failures, autoimmune diseases, metabolic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cancers.
Notes
2297-055x Liu, Ming Wu, Na Xu, Keman Saaoud, Fatma Vasilopoulos, Eleni Shao, Ying Zhang, Ruijing Wang, Jirong Shen, Haitao Yang, William Y Lu, Yifan Sun, Yu Drummer, Charles 4th Liu, Lu Li, Li Hu, Wenhui Yu, Jun Praticò, Domenico Sun, Jianxin Jiang, Xiaohua Wang, Hong Yang, Xiaofeng Journal Article Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 Jul 22;8:713170. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.713170. eCollection 2021.