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Halboub E , Al-Ak'hali MS , Alamir AH , Homeida HE , Baraniya D , Chen T , Al-Hebshi NN
Tongue microbiome of smokeless tobacco users
BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jul 8;20(1) :201
PMID: 32640977    PMCID: PMC7346439   
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Abstract
BACKGROUND: The possibility that smokeless tobacco may contribute to oral carcinogenesis by influencing the oral microbiome has not been explored. This preliminary cross-sectional study sought to assess the effect of using shammah, a form of smokeless tobacco prevalent in Arabia, on the tongue microbiome. Tongue scarping samples were obtained from 29 shammah users (SU; 27.34 ± 6.9 years) and 23 shammah non-users (SNU; 27.7 ± 7.19 years) and analyzed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3). Species-level taxonomy assignment of the high-quality, merged reads was obtained using a previously described BLASTn-based algorithm. Downstream analyses were performed with QIIME, LEfSe, and R. RESULTS: A total of 178 species, belonging to 62 genera and 8 phyla were identified. Genera Streptococcus, Leptotrichia, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Haemophilus, Prevotella and Neisseria accounted for more than 60% of the average microbiome. There were no differences between the two groups in species richness and alpha-diversity, but PCoA showed significant separation (P = 0.015, ANOSIM). LEfSe analysis identified 22 species to be differentially abundant between the SU and SNU. However, only 7 species maintained a false discovery rate of ≤0.2 and could cluster the two groups separately: Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 66, Actinomyces meyeri, Streptococcus vestibularis Streptococcus sanguinis and a potentially novel Veillonella species in association with SU, and Oribacterium asaccharolyticum with SNU. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results indicate that shammah use induces tongue microbiome changes including enrichment of several species with high acetaldehyde production potential, which warrants further investigation.
Notes
1471-2180 Halboub, Esam Orcid: 0000-0002-1894-470x Al-Ak'hali, Mohammed S Alamir, Abdulwahab H Homeida, Husham E Baraniya, Divyashri Chen, Tsute Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor JUP//000261/Jazan University/International Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jul 8;20(1):201. doi: 10.1186/s12866-020-01883-8.